"One day our descendants will think it incredible that we paid so much attention to things like the amount of melanin in our skin or the shape of our eyes or our gender instead of the unique identities of each of us as complex human beings." Franklin Thomas.

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A Girl Like Me - Select # 2 to see an independent film that reveals issues of racial identity discovered in1954 continue today...

A Slip of the Tongue - Select # 1 to view a powerful message for all minorities about images of beauty...

These two models of Racial Identity Development are cited in Multicultural Mentoring of the Gifted and Talented by Torrance, Goff, and Satterfield (1998), pgs 9-12. Compare these models with the "Continuum" of Cultural Proficiency.

I. Minority Identity Development Model

Atkinson, Morten, and Sue (1983)
1. Conformity Stage:
an individual identifies more strongly with the dominant cultural values than his or her own, resulting in self-deprecating attitudes and beliefs; members of the dominant cultural are admired, respected, emulated and deemed superior; sterotypes are accepted and believed.

2. Dissonance Stage:
an individual experiences confusion and conflict about the values and beliefs of the dominant culture; he or she may actively question sterotypes...a growing awareness that not all cultural values of the dominant culture are beneficial.

3. Resistance and Immersion Stage:
an individual actively rejects the dominant culture and accepts his or her cultural group's values, traditions, and customs; the desire to eliminate oppression of the indivual's minority group becomes an important motivation; there is a feeling of distrust and dislike for all members of the dominant culture.

4. Introspection Stage:
an individual questions his or her rigid rejection of the dominant cultural values; there is recogniton than many elements of the dominant culture are highly functional and desirable, but confusion as to how to incorporate these elements into the minority culture; there is confusion regarding loyalty to the individual's cultural group and...the struggle for self-awareness continues.

5. Synergetic Articulation and awareness Stage:
an individual selects elements from both minority and dominant cultural values in developing a cultural identity; there is a strong commitment and desire to eliminate all forms of oppression; the individual develops a positive self-image and a strong sense of self-worth and confidence; the individual reaches out to differnet minority groups in order to understand his or her own cultural values and ways of life.


II. White Identity Development Model

Sue and Sue (1990)
1. Conformity Stage:
an individual possesses minimal awareness of the self as a racial being, unquestioningly accepts the stereotypes of White superiority and minority inferiority and avoids any responsibility for racism.

2. Dissonance Stage:
an individual encounters information or experiences at odds with compartmentalized beliefs; may experience guilt, shame, or anger with the dominant culture's role in perpetuating racism; a tendency to retreat into White culture.

3. Resistance and Immersion Stage:
an individual begins to question or challenge his or her own racism; at first, racism is seen everywhere, and the person is likely to undergo a form of racial self-hatred; the individual reaches out but is often rejected.

4. Introspection Stage:
an individual no longer denies that he or she is White; a reduction of defensiveness and guilt associated with being a member of the dominant culture.

5. Integrative awareness Stage:
a non-racist White identity begins to emerge; there is increased awareness of the sociopolitical influences affecting races and cultural relations, increased appreciation for diversity, and increased social commitment toward eradication of racism and oppression.

WHITE PRIVILEGE videos by Tim Wise
SHORT ONE - http://youtube.com/watch?v=J3Xe1kX7Wsc
LONG ONE - http://youtube.com/watch?v=_UJlNRODZHA&feature=related

Cultural Proficiency - Racial Identity